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By Arthur R. Jensen

Illuminating unique equipment for assessing bias in established I.Q., flair, and success exams, Jensen argues that standardized exams should not biased opposed to Englishspeaking minority teams and describes the makes use of of such exams in schooling and employment.

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PHILLIPS and MASSACHUSETTS BOARD OF EDUCATION3 was an action brought against the school system by parents in Boston. Like Diana, it involved the classification of children as mentally retarded and their placement in special classes on the basis of IQ tests. ) Plaintiffs charged that an IQ of less than 80 is an inadequate basis for placement in special education classes and that the tests are unfair and biased against Negro children, thereby denying their right to equal protection of the laws in violation of the Fourteenth Amend­ ment.

It also permits the challenging of such records. Students’ cumulative records, which often follow them through their entire school careers, have been charged with abuses such as information leaking, labeling, subjective comments, and discrimination, which gave impetus to this legislation. Educators opposed to the legislation hold that it will discourage teachers and counselors from making honest evaluations of pupils. A possible consequence could be that colleges and universities in screening applicants would be forced to rely even more on entrance examination test scores in place of the school’s evaluations.

It was the first legal decision in which explicit criticism of standardized ability tests played a central role. ” Ability grouping relied heavily on achievement and aptitude test scores, including IQs. The plaintiffs contended that (1) “ tests were not given often enough, with the result that a few test scores have an enormous influence on a child's academic career,” and (2) “ the tests which were used, and which are of such critical importance to the child, are wholly inappropriate fo r making predictions about the academic potential o f disadvan­ taged Negro children, the tests being inherently inaccurate insofar as the majority of District schoolchildren are concerned” (italics added).

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