By Bruce A. Bimber
After a confident John F. Kennedy bested a visibly shaky Richard Nixon of their recognized 1960 debates, political tv, it was once stated, might henceforth verify elections. this present day, many declare the net stands out as the most recent medium to revolutionize electoral politics. applicants make investments seriously in net and e mail campaigns to arrive potential citizens, in addition to to speak with reporters, capability donors, and political activists. Do those efforts effect electorate, extend democracy, raise the insurance of political concerns, or mobilize a shrinking and apathetic electorate?Campaigning on-line solutions those questions via taking a look at how applicants current themselves on-line and the way citizens reply to their efforts-including no matter if citizens research from applicants' web pages and no matter if citizens' perspectives are plagued by what they see. even if the net won't result in a revolution in democracy, it is going to, Bimber and Davis argue, have effects: reinforcing messages, mobilizing activists, and strengthening partisans' perspectives. Reporting on a wealth of recent facts drawn from nationwide and state-wide surveys, laboratory experiments, interviews with crusade employees, and research of sites themselves, Campaigning on-line attracts the main whole photo of the function of crusade web content in American elections up to now.
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Additional resources for Campaigning Online: The Internet in U.S. Elections
S. Taxpayers party all offered sites where voters could learn about each party’s principles, news, and activities. Yet only candidate sites offered the direct, unﬁltered communication to voters for which candidates had been searching. With the proliferation of sites by 1996, candidates for all ofﬁces began to feel they needed some kind of exposure to the Web to appear competitive and up-to-date. Traditional media did much to reinforce this view. 40 Newspaper stories proliferated about candidates’ use of the Web to reach voters.
Bob Dole’s site emphasized Dole’s small-town beginnings and described one of the candidate’s early jobs as a teenage drugstore soda jerk. For the most part, candidate Web sites resembled brochures. This was not coincidental since many of the campaigns used the text and design of their brochures as the template for their campaign Web sites. There was little dynamic quality to the sites, which discouraged repeat visits for new information. For avid Internet users, this led to disappointment and frustration.
Then, after a defeat for the state senate, he practiced law for several years before returning to politics to make a successful run for state treasurer in 1980. Carnahan served as the state’s treasurer for four years, lost a bid for the Democratic gubernatorial nomination, and then won election as lieutenant governor in 1988. He then served as lieutenant governor (while Ashcroft was governor) for four years. Carnahan was elected to succeed Ashcroft in 1992 and, like Ashcroft, by 2000 had served two terms as governor.