By Leonard E. Jarrard
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Extra info for Cognitive Processes of Nonhuman Primates
2, 3, and 4 the relearning performance surfaces are plotted as a f u n c t i o n of learning-retention interval and relearning trials. One point is instantly clear: although all groups reached the same criterion o f 18 correct o u t o f 20 in learning, the I + Η (inferotemporal + hippocampal-lesioned) animals did not show 90% performance even immediately afterward. W h y this should be is n o t o b v i o u s , although it no d o u b t was influenced b y their original learning having been slower, because in such a case a chance deviation upward to criterion level is likely to be f o l l o w e d b y a d r o p below criterion level.
Cowles, J . T . Stimulus-versus-response differentiation in delayed reactions o f chimpanzees. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1936, 48, 112-136. Norman, D. A . Memory and attention: N e w Y o r k : Wiley, 1969. An introduction to human information processing. Peterson, L. , & Peterson, M. J . Short-term retention o f individual verbal items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1959, 58, 193-198. Peterson, L. , Peterson, M. J . , & Miller, A . Short-term retention and meaningfulness. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1961, 15, 143-147.
T h e second experiment also disposes o f another interpretation, and at the same time exposes a striking paradox. Because amnesic subjects were so p o o r o n the conventional recognition method (in fact, earlier we f o u n d suggestive evi dence that patients were relatively poorer o n recognition than on recall; Warring t o n & Weiskrantz, 1968b), their adequate performance under more favorable conditions can hardly be a removal o f a blockage in finding the names as such; that is, w e are not dealing w i t h a " t i p of the t o n g u e " phenomenon.