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By Peter Mayer

The present clash which threatens the very lifestyles of the inter­ nationwide communist circulation as a unmarried coherent entity needs to be sought for within the roots of Marxian philosophy. The important thought of pre-Leninist communism is inside the thought of "proletarian internationalism. " but the emergence of the communist party-states has been squarely predicated at the standards of unmarried nationwide states, as considered during the education and adventure of some of the communist leaders. hence the Soviet model has been formed through the nationalism of Lenin, Stalin, and Khrushchev. the single aberrant case, the internationalism of Trotsky, was once doomed to failure. The chinese language model of "communism" has as its root innovations the spirit of "prolonged" fight opposed to a pretty good enemy, whose final defeat is ensured during the dialectics of political progress. The non­ communist societies are by means of definition "decadent. " The circulation got here to strength by means of exploiting the nationalism engendered inside China by way of the japanese invasion. Its mass help was once in keeping with the peasantry, even though the obvious fiction of "proletarian management" used to be strictly maintained. extra, "communism" is a time period which has misplaced its unique encompassing definition. Peking now narrowly defines it as guidelines consonant with "the considered Mao Tse-tung. " therefore either the Soviet and the chinese language interpretation of "commun­ ism" are according to an idea which was once anathema to the highbrow founders of the movement.

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270-93, and chapter viii. UNITY THEORY VS. SOCIALISM IN ONE COUNTRY 19 Young Stalin's early thought showed no originality and clearly followed Lenin's concepts and methods. l As late as 1922 Stalin insisted that the communists abroad come to the rescue of the Soviet Union, 2 and through revolution establish other socialist states. Thus socialist Russia would be strengthened against the outside world. 3 Lenin was no sooner buried than Stalin's attack on Trotsky began. ," he charged that the commissar for war had falsified the record concerning his association with Lenin, in an attempt "to discredit Leninism in order to drag in Trotskyism as the 'sole' 'proletarian' ...

Praeger (1959). 3 See W. Z. , International Publishers (1955), pp. 365-67. The value of the work lies precisely in its partisan and polemical nature. Internal Soviet developments are implicity assunled to benefit the international movement. Yet even a superficial reading discloses them to be predicated to the requirements of the Soviet party-state. The actual change in the content and direction of Soviet theory from those of Marx (and Lenin) was discussed and analysed in chapter I. 4 See the Deutscher trilogy on Trotsky, op.

364-5. Brandt brilliantly analyzes the "uses" that both Stalin and Trotsky made of the dead Lenin. " The situation is described by Brandt as follows: ... " He was free to break his own precepts, to contradict himself "dialectically" in tune willi llie historical process for which he acted as oracle. But once he had died, his every word became law, his every move a model. " Such posthumous systematizing involves a retroactive denial of choice, in that whatever the dead leader did becomes the on(y course that he could have wisely chosen.

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