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Figure 5-4. Front Panel of the 8-Bit PRBS © National Instruments Corporation 5-3 Fundamentals of Digital Electronics Lab 5 Pseudo-Random Number Generators A better way to view the bit sequence is as a bit trace. The Boolean bits are converted into a numeric value of either 1 or 0 and then plotted on a LabVIEW chart. vi are displayed as a logic trace. Figure 5-5. Serial Output from the Pseudo-Random Bit Sequencer Communication lasers are tested using PRBS waveforms. Sometimes a laser may lock up from a particular sequence of ones and zeros, or a bit level may be outside specifications.

There are many different ADC designs, of which the ramp, tracking, and successive approximation converters are common. This lab looks at the ramp and tracking A/D converters. Purpose of the Analog-to-Digital Converter The purpose of an ADC converter is to produce a digital binary number that is proportional to an analog input signal. The fundamental conversion process is shown in the following diagram. Input Voltage + C – Test Voltage DAC b7 b0 Counter Reset Figure 8-1. Symbolic Design for an 8-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter A counter creates a test binary sequence, and its digital output is converted into an analog voltage using a digital-to-analog converter.

The timing diagram clearly shows how each stage divides the previous output by 2. Q7. Here, f is the clock frequency. Binary counters need to be reset (all bits 0) or set (all bits 1) for various operations. The truth table for the JK flip-flop shown above has direct inputs that provide this function. The clocked logic can occur whenever the reset and set inputs are pulled high. A 0 on either the Set or Clear input forces the output to a 1 or 0, respectively. These operations are exclusive, hence the (00) state is disallowed.

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